« Archives in May, 2006

PowerDNS & geobackend fixed

Problem: dig query returns
;; connection timed out; no servers could be reached

Solution: It’s very important to bind the PowerDNS server to specific IPs. (local-address=DNS_IP1,DNS_IP2,etc.)

PowerDNS geobackend README

PowerDNS geobackend setup notes

These are the steps I went through to set up geobackend for PowerDNS on FreeBSD
-STABLE.  By the time you read this maybe geobackend is part of the PowerDNS
main CVS so perhaps not much of this will apply.  In that case you should skip
further down to the configuration part.

Before I carry on I should probably point out that if you don't know how DNS
works much, or if you have never installed PowerDNS ever before, then you
probably won't understand any of this.  In that case you should probably go and
do some reading/practicing before trying to set this up for yourself.  As a
minimum of DNS knowledge I would say you need to understand:

- Basically how DNS servers answer queries

- What common DNS terms like "CNAME" "RR" and "SOA" mean

- How to use diagnostic utilities such as "dig" to test your setup.

So, how this should work on Linux or any general Unix system.  This didn't work
for me so I ended up having to do it another way, but anyhow..

1. Download PowerDNS source from http://www.powerdns.com/downloads/index.php -
   you want the GPL sources.

2. Edit configure.in in the main directory so that where it has the list of
   backends at the bottom, you add:


3. $ cd modules

   and get the geobackend:

   $ cvs -d :pserver:anon@cvs.blitzed.org:/data/cvs login
   (press  at password prompt)
   $ cvs -d :pserver:anon@cvs.blitzed.org:/data/cvs co -d geobackend geo-dns

   $ cd ..

   to return to top of build directory.

4. Regenerate the autotools with:

   $ aclocal
   $ autoheader
   $ automake --add-missing --copy --foreign
   $ autoconf

5. Do a ./configure with the flags you normally would use, but also

6. Install PowerDNS as normal for how you would normally use it.

This did not work for me on FreeBSD: no matter what combination of autoconf,
automake, libtool was installed I would always get one error or another at the
stage where I was running those commands.  So, after a few hours of messing
around I decided to just compile the geobackend outside of the PowerDNS source
tree.  Probably if/when geobackend is made part of PowerDNS, this will "just
work", but in the meantime here's what I did:

1. Install PowerDNS from the port /usr/ports/dns/powerdns as normal.  Do not do
   a "make clean" yet though!  Make sure your PowerDNS works as you'd expect
   without any of this geobackend stuff before going further.

2. Somewhere else, get the source of our geobackend as above in step 3.

3. Compile geobackend:

   $ c++ -I/usr/ports/dns/powerdns/work/pdns-2.9.15 -O2 -Wall -c geobackend.cc
   $ c++ -I/usr/ports/dns/powerdns/work/pdns-2.9.15 -O2 -Wall -c ippreftree.cc
   $ c++ ippreftree.o geobackend.o -Wl,-soname -Wl,libgeobackend.so.0 -shared -o libgeobackend.so

   All of those should compile and link without error.

4. Now you need to copy that shared library to the system library directory, as

   # cp libgeobackend.so /usr/local/lib/

Now whichever way you managed to get libgeobackend.so compiled, you are now
ready to configure PowerDNS.  This is what Blitzed's configuration looks like
right now (but this is very much an experiment so things are bound to get out
of date quickly).

By the way, I could not find a SysV-style startup script installed by the
FreeBSD port so I had to copy one from debian and put it in
/usr/local/etc/rc.d/pdns.sh.  You can get that file here:

And another thing is that the FreeBSD port doesn't add any new users for
PowerDNS's use.  You probably don't want to run it as root even without our
code in it!  So be sure to add some sensible user and group like "pdns".

PowerDNS Configuration

Here is the relevant parts of my /usr/local/etc/pdns.conf file as running on

Map configuration

Above you defined a directory which should contain one file for each RR you are
going to serve.  This section describes the format for those files.

There is a perl script in the geo-dns module
(http://cvs.blitzed.org/geo-dns/iso2region.pl) which will print out a useful
template for starting with.  There are just two lines you MUST add for your own
setup.  The one that Blitzed is using is here:

The first line you must add is the $RECORD line.  This tells the geobackend
which RR within the geo-zone the file is for, so for example the file above

        $RECORD irc

meaning it is for irc.geo.blitzed.org.

The second line that must be present is the $ORIGIN line:

        $ORIGIN iso.blitzed.org.

The rest of this file is a list of mappings of ISO country to RR, and the
$ORIGIN line tells the geobackend how to qualify the RRs.  Any relative RR with
be qualified by adding a dot and then this $ORIGIN string onto it.  So all the
relative RRs that follow are actually in the "iso.blitzed.org." zone.  If you want to refer to an RR outside the $ORIGIN, put a trailing dot.

The final mandatory line is the 0 mapping:

        0 pool.blitzed.org.

This is the "default" mapping.  It's possible that you will get a query from an
IP that is not represented in the nerd.dk zone.  Maybe it is a new allocation
by a RIR, or maybe something unexpected happened like you got a query from IPv6
or from an RFC1918 address.  Or, there could be some error elsewhere in the
geobackend that makes it want to give up.  In any of these cases it needs to
return a CNAME to a useful default.

The default chosen for blitzed is "pool.blitzed.org." (note the trailing dot
puts it outside the $ORIGIN!).  At the moment, pool.blitzed.org is a
round-robin of A records of all our connected servers, but the best way to
handle it is under debate.  Since it is in one of our regular zone files we
can change it later how we want.

The entire rest of the file is optional, and takes the format of an ISO country
code (number) and an RR to map it to.  iso2region.pl will have helpfully added
comments with the country name so you can see what is what:

        # Belgium
        56 eu

Lines starting with # are comments.  That's mainly so you can tell what the ISO
code corresponds to, and maybe later when you are tweaking where all these
countries will go to you can add some documentation for why you did it.

The "56" is the ISO country code (see
for Belgium.  The "eu" tells the geobackend that if a query for
irc.geo.blitzed.org should come in from someone in Belgium, then it should
respond with a CNAME for "eu.iso.blitzed.org".  That's it.  That is the RR that
gets sent back.  Every other line in this file is the same, just code->RR maps.

At this point you might be wondering when the user gets the actual IP address
sent to them.  The answer is that we have chosen to make our geobackend only
respond with CNAMEs to other RRs that are assumed to be hosted elsewhere in
DNS.  Our main blitzed.org zone is hosted in bind servers like it has been for
years.  In that zone we have entries for every one of the RRs that appears on
the right hand side in the director-map.  A list of those RRs is as follows:


These correspond to the ISO names for the regions/continents (Antarctica,
Africa, Asia, Europe, North America, Oceania, South America) and are
represented in our DNS at the moment by either a list of A records of servers
"near" there, or else a CNAME to a "nearby" region.  For example we have no
servers in Antarctica or Asia.  We just CNAME those to "na.iso.blitzed.org." to
send those users to North American servers instead.  Doing it this way is just
our first attempt, we are still experimenting and might decide to do it
different.  All you need to know is that the geobackend gives the CNAMEs you
tell it to give, it's your business what those CNAMEs are and what they end up
resolving to.

DNS configuration

Time to configure the things that go into your existing DNS setup:

1. The geographically load-balanced zone needs to be delegated to your PowerDNS
   servers.  For Blitzed we chose "geo.blitzed.org.", so:

   geo          NS      ns0.blitzed.org.
   geo          NS      ns1.blitzed.org.
   geo          NS      ns2.blitzed.org.

2. The lists of servers that correspond to each CNAME that your director-map
   can possibly come up with.  The above configuration can only answer one of:


   We have no servers in Antarctica so we just send that to North America:

   an.iso       CNAME   na.iso.blitzed.org.

   Other regions that actually have servers light look like:

   na.iso       A ; Some server in North America
   na.iso       A ; Some other server in North America

3. Eventually you probably will want to use a more friendly name than something
   like "irc.geo.blitzed.org.".  At that point you could just do the equivalent

   irc  CNAME   irc.geo.blitzed.org.



OK!  If you're still awake after all that, it is ready to test.

By the way, at the moment some of the logging from the geobackend is a severity
"debug" (facility "daemon" if using FreeBSD port).  The default FreeBSD -STABLE
install does not log daemon.debug to any file.  If you don't add daemon.debug
to your /etc/syslog.conf then you might not see some of the logs I shall talk
about later.  Most logging will be removed or made optional anyway as it slows
things down.

- Start PowerDNS

  # /usr/local/etc/rc.d/pdns.sh start

- Check your logs!  You should see something like this:

  As long as there were no errors, the server is ready, geobackend is probably
  working.  You should now test with a suitable diagnostic tool:

  What does this show?  Well first of all it tells us that we looked for the A
  record of "irc.geo.blitzed.org." (A records are the default RR for dig).
  What we actually got back was a CNAME to "eu.iso.blitzed.org."  At that point
  the work of geobackend and our PowerDNS server as a whole is done.  All it is
  designed to do is return a CNAME based on the location of the server doing
  the query.  The server I did that from is in UK, so a response of
  "eu.iso.blitzed.org." is correct.

  The rest of the data comes from the normal BIND9 nameservers that are
  authoritative for the "blitzed.org." zone, in this case a list of A records
  corresponding to our EU servers.  Finally the list of authoritative servers
  for "blitzed.org." is given, those same BIND9 boxes.

  Meanwhile in the syslog of nubian, we have:

  Feb 10 03:07:02 nubian pdns[32106]: [geobackend] Serving irc.geo.blitzed.org CNAME eu.iso.blitzed.org to (756)

  Here you can see that asked for "irc.geo.blitzed.org." and was
  served the mapping for ISO code 756: "eu.iso.blitzed.org.".  This log notice
  will be useful for debugging and refining the director-map by hand, but
  later it will probably be removed or made optional.

Ongoing maintenance

New IPs are regularly allocated, also there may end up being corrections to the
nerd.dk zones, so you should arrange to rsync this file every so often.  I'm
guessing once a week would be adequate.  You may not be satisfied with your
first try at the director-map either, so from time to time you may make
changes.  You might also add more map files to your geo-maps directory.
Anytime those changes happen you will need to tell the geobackend to reread
them.  At the moment the best way to do this is:

About recursive nameservers

There is a small but potentially confusing gotcha in all this regarding
recursive nameservers.

Normally the authoritative nameservers for your regular domain will not allow
recursion, that is, they will return data only for the domains they are
authoritative for, returning pointers to nameservers for everything else.

Here's an example of an authoritative server for blitzed.org that does not
allow recursion:

Note in the flags part the "rd", which means "recursion desired".  Since this
server does not offer recursion to me, all it does is pass back the hostname of
the nameservers that can further answer my question (in this case the list of
nic.uk servers).  My own resolver would then carry on asking questions, which
is how it should be.

Look what happens if I pick a server that does allow recursion:

Note the extra flag that appeared, "ra".  This is "recursion available", and
the server true to its word has gone and got the information for us.

Normally this probably would not be noticeable.  In most cases it does not
matter if your own resolver does the work or if some other server does.  This
geo-dns project is based totally on the IP address of the server that asks the
question, however, so for this application it is critical.

As far as geo-dns is concerned, you cannot have any nameserver that allows
recursion be authoritative for your main domain.  If you do, then any query
which hits this server will cause it to go out and get the answer itself.  It
will hand back answers that are based on its own location, instead of the
location of the client.  After wondering why too many people were getting
answers based on the location of bos.nameserver.net instead of their own
location, we finally worked out it had recursion enabled.  This note is to save
you the same hassle.

It is generally recommended anyway that nameservers which are meant to be
authoritative for domains do not have recursion enabled
(http://www.isc.org/pubs/tn/isc-tn-2002-2.txt), but in this case it is an
absolute requirement if you wish to get any sensible results.  Check they are
not allowing recursion by use of dig as above before setting up this backend.

(The specific example of bos.nameserver.net has since been fixed (had recursion
disabled) so you will not be able to repeat this example)

Hosting multiple domains

You may have noticed that all of the instructions so far have talked only of
the single example domain, geo.blitzed.org, and may be wondering how to serve
multiple zones.  The answer is, you don't need to.  The only thing you want to
serve is individual RRs, and this geobackend does allow you to serve multiple
of these just by adding files to the geo-maps directory.

So, assume you now want to apply geo-dns to the RR irc.strugglers.net,  You might
add a new director map to your geo-maps directory named "irc.strugglers.net"
(name doesn't matter, just an example).  Inside this file you would have
something like:

        $RECORD irc.strugglers.net
        $ORIGIN iso.strugglers.net.
        0 bar.example.com.
        # List of code->RR maps follow, unqualified RRs are inside
        # iso.strugglers.net

Once you now do a "pdns_control rediscover", your geobackend will be configured
to answer for irc.strugglers.net.geo.blitzed.org.  Now the people who run
strugglers.net's dns just need to add a handy CNAME in their example.com zone

irc     CNAME   irc.strugglers.net.geo.blitzed.org.

You can check it will work before they add the CNAME:

so that is how you can geo-dnsify RRs in multiple zones.

Other questions, corrections, etc.?

Please subscribe to our "geo" list from http://lists.blitzed.org/listinfo/geo
and tell us about it.  Tell us about how you use this stuff too, we're
interested in people's experiences.

All this is too much for you?

We're still beta-testing this ourselves.  As long as it doesn't place too much
load on our servers we are open to the idea of doing the PowerDNS part of this
for you as well.  We're not ready to do that yet; it will require more
development and specification of how you would provide your own director-maps
etc..  If you are interested then please subscribe to the geo list and help us
work out the details.


Q1. My IRC network is based mostly in one country (e.g. Australia, Brazil, ...)
    so all my users are from one ISO code and this isn't so useful to me, what
    can I do?

A1. Well, one of the assumptions made during the design of this backend is that
    latency and geographical distance doesn't have a good relationship at small
    scales, even within North America or Europe it probably does not *always*
    follow that short distance == low latency.

    To improve things further I think you will need to do actual measurements.
    Or you could look at the amount of hops in the AS path from your client to
    each of your servers.  Maybe you can come up with more ideas, if so we'd
    like to hear.

    However, if you are able to get more detailed geographic info from
    somewhere then you could still feed it into this backend, you'd just have
    to give up on the ISO country code model.  I can really only see this
    working for very big countries like Australia and North America.

    Remember also that your servers probably are not 100% reliable!  Say you
    have 2 US servers; one in California and one in New York.  You find some
    way to split the US up into two halves with one half going to California
    and one to New York.  Now suppose the New York server dies.  Half your US
    users are still being directed there because that's the nearest one!  Worse
    still, those users probably think that what they are connecting to is a
    *random* server, yet every single time they get will directed to a dead
    server.  They may conclude your entire network is dead.

    You would be better advised IMHO to just have one US pool with both servers
    in.  If either dies, the irc clients will make a few more attempts and get
    the other.  It might add a few more ms to the RTT, but it's better than not
    being able to get on at all, and it's better than ending up on a non-US
    server.  Maybe one day we'll do a high-availability backend too, though. :)

Q2. Why is this tied to IRC?  Can I use it for other things?

A2. Yes!  The code itself is not restricted in usefulness to only IRC, it's
    just that IRC is a good example of a situation where you have a service
    that is commonly split across many widely-separated servers, lots of widely
    spread clients, and a serious lack of money for "real" solutions.

    It wouldn't be any harder to use it for things like HTTP or many other

Q3. I don't want to run PowerDNS, will you make a custom backend for BIND9?

A3. Probably not unless you're willing to pay or induce us in other ways!
    PowerDNS is fun, you should try it, maybe you can make it work with only
    one IP address by use of a forward zone in BIND and putting PowerDNS on a
    strange port.

Q4. I have some ideas for other metrics you could use instead of origin
    country, like server load or user count, or ... will you implement that

A4: In another backend maybe.  Tell us about your ideas, if you can make them
    sound interesting and useful then maybe we will.

Q5. I serve lots of RRs out of my geobackend and with lots of nameservers I
    find it hard to keep my geo-maps in sync between them all.  Any hints?

A5. At the moment we use rsync like this:

    Which will take care of getting a new nerd.dk zone weekly and will sync the
    geo-maps every 15 minutes, doing a rediscover if files were transferred.


Author: Andy Smith  but please direct any questions to
the geo list thanks!


Install PowerDNS


CXXFLAGS=-I/root/trungson/downloads/boost_1_33_1 ./configure –with-modules=”geo bind”